Mozambique has enormous economic potential. In 2011, huge natural gas reserves were discovered off the country's northern coast. In theory, they could help Mozambique become one of the world's largest exporters of gas. The country also has further mineral resources, renewable energy resources and vast areas that can be used for agriculture.
In the last few years, Rwanda has made remarkable progress towards reaching the Millennium Development Goals. And yet, Rwanda – one of the smallest states in Africa and the continent’s most densely populated country – is still one of the poorest countries in the world. It ranks 163rd on the UN Human Development Index (HDI 2014), out of a total of 188 countries.
Uganda has in recent years evolved into a stabilising force within East Africa. The country is now engaged in fostering peace and security in the region, and is actively involved in promoting regional integration. Uganda's economy, too, has developed soundly, in spite of the considerable challenges it faces – such as widespread corruption and a high rate of population growth.
On paper, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo) is a wealthy country: it has an abundance of natural resources – mineral wealth, large water resources and huge tropical rainforests. However, decades of exploitation under colonial rule, dictatorship and the wars that followed, have reduced this central African country to abject poverty. The social and humanitarian situation is disastrous. The United Nations Human Development Index (HDI 2014) ranks the DR Congo 176th of the 188 countries listed.
A clear majority of 98.8 per cent of the people of southern Sudan voted for complete independence from the north of Sudan in a referendum held in January 2011. On 9 July 2011, the change was made official when South Sudan declared its independence and became a sovereign state. The Federal Republic of Germany recognised South Sudan under international law, opening an Embassy in the capital Juba right on the day of independence. Five days later South Sudan was accepted as the 193rd member of the United Nations.
Ghana's political development serves as a role model in Africa. Today, Ghana is regarded as a solid democracy and an important anchor for stability in the West African region.
Guinea is a poor country of approximately 11.7 million people that possesses the world's largest reserves of bauxite and largest untapped high-grade iron ore reserves (Simandou), as well as gold and diamonds. In addition, Guinea has fertile soil, ample rainfall, and is the source of several West African rivers, including the Senegal, Niger, and Gambia. Guinea's hydro potential is enormous and the country could be a major exporter of electricity. The country also has tremendous agriculture potential. Gold, bauxite, and diamonds are Guinea’s main mineral exports.
Four years after the popular uprising that led to the resignation of President Hosni Mubarak in 2011, the political and economic situation in Egypt is slowly becoming more stable. The government is taking some first steps to initiate sustainable economic reforms. At the same time, the government's actions are very much influenced by security policy considerations.