Agriculture

Filipe Berge de Avelar is our expert on Geostrategical Intelligence, Management and Controlling, Food Security Agribusiness Consulting and Development

Lesotho

Small, mountainous, and completely landlocked by South Africa, Lesotho depends on a narrow economic base of textile manufacturing, agriculture, remittances, and regional customs revenue. About three-fourths of the people live in rural areas and engage in animal herding and subsistence agriculture, although Lesotho produces less than 20% of the nation's demand for food. Agriculture is vulnerable to weather and climate variability.
 
English

Swaziland

Surrounded by South Africa, except for a short border with Mozambique, Swaziland depends on South Africa for 60% of its exports and for more than 90% of its imports. Swaziland's currency is pegged to the South African rand, effectively relinquishing Swaziland's monetary policy to South Africa. The government is heavily dependent on customs duties from the Southern African Customs Union (SACU), and worker remittances from South Africa supplement domestically earned income.
English

Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe's economy depends heavily on its mining and agriculture sectors. Following a decade of contraction from 1998 to 2008, the economy recorded real growth of more than 10% per year in the period 2010-13, before slowing to roughly 3% in 2014 due to poor harvests, low diamond revenues, and decreased investment. Lower mineral prices, infrastructure and regulatory deficiencies, a poor investment climate, a large public and external debt burden, and extremely high government wage expenses impede the country’s economic performance.

English

Madagascar

Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is a mainstay of the economy, accounting for more than one-fourth of GDP and employing roughly 80% of the population. Deforestation and erosion, aggravated by the use of firewood as the primary source of fuel, are serious concerns.
 
English

Mozambique

Mozambique has enormous economic potential. In 2011, huge natural gas reserves were discovered off the country's northern coast. In theory, they could help Mozambique become one of the world's largest exporters of gas. The country also has further mineral resources, renewable energy resources and vast areas that can be used for agriculture.

English

Comoros

One of the world's poorest countries, Comoros is made up of three islands that are hampered by inadequate transportation links, a young and rapidly increasing population, and few natural resources. The low educational level of the labor force contributes to a subsistence level of economic activity and a heavy dependence on foreign grants and technical assistance. Agriculture, including fishing, hunting, and forestry, accounts for 50% of GDP, employs 80% of the labor force, and provides most of the exports.
English

Malawi

Up until 1964, Malawi was a British protectorate, after which it spent 30 years under authoritarian rule. The early 1990s saw mounting opposition to the then governing one-party regime. In a referendum in 1993, the people voted for a multi-party system; the first democratic elections took place a year later. Germany supported this transformation from the outset.

English

Zambia

Over the last few decades, Zambia has developed into a, for the most part, politically stable republic, in which more than 70 different ethnic communities live together peacefully. Compared with the rest of the region, the level of religious freedom and the generosity of the country's refugee policy are remarkable.

English

Tanzania

Tanzania is one of the most politically settled and peaceful countries in sub-Saharan Africa and functions as an anchor for stability in a region that has been, and still is, troubled by a great many conflicts. Tanzania has a well-established system of government. Several political parties are now in existence. Yet the Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) – which used to be the sole political party – has been in power since independence in 1961, and in October 2015 it won the elections again.

English